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In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people The deadliest industrial accident in … And just five years ago, an estimated 800 tons of ammonium nitrate fueled a warehouse explosion that leveled part of a port in the Chinese city of Tianjin, killing 173. On December 17, 1960, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which the last 23 cars were derailed. © 2021 BBC. The fire was controlled after most of the material was removed by mechanical means. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Beirut blast: Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says, Biden unveils $1.9tn US economic relief package. The orange plume is caused by the nitrogen dioxide, which is often associated with air pollution. Ammonium nitrate is a crystal-like white solid which is made in large industrial quantities. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. By Ibtissem Guenfoud and Guy Davies. Washington] U. S. Dept. The scale of the damage _ from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away _ resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used as … illus., tables. Ammonium Nitrate is used by the military around the world as an explosive as well as in terrorist activities like the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, killing 168 people. Ammonium nitrate was involved in the 1947 Texas City disaster, one of the largest industrial explosions in history. The shockwave is produced from compressed air, he explains. On August 4, 2020, a major port explosion caused devastating damage across the city of Beirut, Lebanon. Aluminum nitrate dissolves in ethanol at 8.63 g/100mL. The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the detonator. They arrived on the scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire. The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. 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The Summers Fertilizer Company plant suffered a fire, causing 400 tons of stored ammonium nitrate to be consumed by fire. The driver and six firemen were injured. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage. … "You won't just find ammonium nitrate in the ground," explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. nitrate nonahydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate" Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS EMERGENCY OVERVIEW RISK Contact with combustible material may cause fire. There was no explosion. Both explosions involved about 300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate. The fertilizer storage facility of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition (SSD) fire in January 2003. [2] Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947 which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling. This damn thing seriously hurt my ears and i felt a huge shockwave on my chest haha it was insane! When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor;[1] however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation into nitrous oxide and water vapor. ", "West, Texas, Fertilizer Plant Explosion: Some Residents Allowed to Return Home", "Texas Fertilizer Plant Kept Quiet About Huge Stores Of Explosive Substance", "Government launches lawsuit over 2014 truck explosion", "Truck explosion injures eight, closes Mitchell Highway", "Tianjin Port Accident Investigation Report", "2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate was impounded in Beirut's port after it was seized from an abandoned ship in 2014, years before the explosion", "The blast was felt 240 kilometres away from Lebanon", "Beirut explosion death toll rises to 135 as 5,000 wounded: Live", "Lebanon: at least 78 killed as huge explosion rocks Beirut", "Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Ammonium Nitrate: The Chemical That Caused the Explosion in Beirut. destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. Washington] U. S. Dept. Uses. The Great Kent Explosion in 1916. On April 4, 1925, and May 3, 1925, two carloads, each containing 220 barrels of ammonium nitrate, were dispatched from. "You have a supersonic shockwave that is travelling through the air, and you can see that in the white spherical cloud which travels out from the centre, expanding upwards," says Prof Sella. 9H 2 O and the molar mass is 375.13 g mol-1.Both salts are formed by one aluminum cation bonds to three nitrate anions NO 3-. "So you can see it doesn't take very big volumes but certainly, urgently, that should be reduced to low levels," Mr Craig said. At 5:12 PM the explosion occurred. The accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. In 1994 McVeigh and his partners purchased 5,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to illegally create a bomb constructed in a rented van. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. VideoInside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. The deadly explosion in Beirut, and the reddish plumes of smoke that followed, showed telltale signs of an ammonium nitrate blast, experts said. Beirut explosion linked to Russian ship storing ammonium nitrate left in port, called 'floating bomb' Officials warned the ship was 'a floating bomb.' In this particular accident, neither car of ammonium nitrate exploded. 1.4) Very insensitive substances with mass explosion hazard (Div. Higgins Company plant was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a pile of mixed fertilizer. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people, The deadliest industrial accident in US history occurred in 1947 at Galveston Bay, Texas. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. However, if you have a large amount of material lying around for a long time it begins to decay. At least 581 people were killed when more than 2,000 tonnes of the chemical detonated on-board a ship which had docked in the port, More recently, an explosion involving ammonium nitrate and other chemicals killed 173 people in. As Lebanon's investigation into the devastating blast in Beirut continues, officials have pointed to a possible cause: A massive shipment of agricultural … A fire then started in the trailer's cabin and at around 20:43, a huge explosion occurred, resulting in 28 deaths and around 150 more people injured. The gas released from the decomposing fertilizer is what drives the explosion… Porous ammonium nitrate(V) 91.85 88.71 85.23 Flaked aluminum 3.64 7.27 12.12 Oil FLEX 401 4.51 4.02 2.65 Results and Discussion Content of the explosion toxic products Determination of toxic gases released at the detonation of explosive samples Beirut explosion: What caused Beirut explosion? But storing it can be a problem, and it has been associated with serious industrial accidents in the past. The resultant dust explosion from as little as 35 grams of aluminum powder per cubic meter of air can yield overpressures in the order of 0.6 million Pascals 7 (MPa). illus., tables. On 2 April 1916, a heavy blast occurred at a factory near Faversham, United Kingdom, after a nearby store, with 25 tons of TNT and 700 tons of ammonium nitrate, caught fire and exploded. Disasters caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate (AN) detonations initiated by fires are well known. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion, but it also requires a detonator and fuel. What is ammonium nitrate? On its own, ammonium nitrate is relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella. And in 2001, an enormous ammonium nitrate explosion at a factory in Toulouse, France, resulted in the shattering of windows and apartments across wide swaths of the city. In an evaporating pan of the Repauno works, du Pont Co., 4,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate exploded, possibly caused by a clogged air lance leading to overheating of the nitrate. The fire started around 3 PM, and fire-fighters were notified of the blaze at 4:02 PM. If you try this, stand far, far away! The mix powder obtained by mixing aluminum powder (ρ=2.7kg/cm3) and ammonium nitrate was used instead of the explosive PETN, and an explosive combustion phenomenon was … The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. What is ammonium nitrate? 240 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in sacks exploded after being hit by a shell from a nearby fire in a munitions train.

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