While these raids took place with some regularity, the use of undocumented or forced labor remained widespread due to complacency and corruption. In 2017, Russia entered into bilateral agreements with Uzbekistan to regulate, control, and provide training to migrant laborers in each country. The government did not make efforts to reduce the demand for commercial sex acts or forced labor. The Supreme Court publicly reported 18 convictions of persons under article 127.1 and three convictions under article 127.2, compared with 26 convictions under article 127.1 and one under 127.2 in 2017. • Screen for trafficking indicators before deporting migrants, including from the DPRK. • Allocate funding to state bodies and anti-trafficking NGOs to provide specialized assistance and rehabilitative care to victims. Police regularly avoided registering victims in criminal cases that were unlikely to be solved in order not to risk lower conviction rates. It did not report comprehensive data on trafficking criminal cases, making it difficult to assess the adequacy or effectiveness of law enforcement efforts. • Ensure screening among children returned from Iraq and Syria for child soldiering indicators and provide with rehabilitation and reintegration support. • Develop formal national procedures to guide law enforcement, labor inspectors, and other government officials in identifying and referring victims to service providers, particularly among labor migrants and individuals in prostitution. In July 2017, Russia provided in-kind support for an OSCE conference focusing on the role of public-private partnerships in the fight against human trafficking; however, the event focused on the global scope of the problem rather than the challenges in Russia. • Create a central repository for publicly available information on investigation, prosecution, conviction, and sentencing data for trafficking cases. Authorities reportedly prosecuted Russian citizens returning from Syria and Iraq, where some were subjected to trafficking, under anti-terror laws without being screened for indicators of trafficking. Human trafficking: Irina's story. Sex trafficking occurs in brothels, hotels, and saunas, among other locations. Official and unofficial statistics estimate there are between 5 and 12 million foreign workers in Russia, of which the government estimates 1.5 million are irregular migrants. The National Human Trafficking Hotline maintains one of the most extensive data sets on the issue of human trafficking in the United States. In a new report, the U.S. State Department says Belarus, Iran, Russia, and Turkmenistan remain among the worst offenders of human trafficking and forced labor. Corruption among some government officials and within some state agencies creates an environment enabling trafficking crimes. The government did not provide funding or programs for protective services dedicated to trafficking victims. The government maintained minimal law enforcement efforts. In 2003 an estimated 300,000 to 1.5 million illegal arms were in circulation within Russia. The latest statistics provided by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), based on statistics collected by the Russian government, show that in 2015, there were 285 detected victims of trafficking under the different trafficking-related articles 1 of Russia’s criminal code. According to law enforcement statistics, of these 19 identified victims, 16 were Russian and three were from unspecified Central Asian countries; five were female sex trafficking victims, one female and three males were victims of forced labor, and 10 were children, although many of these were baby-selling cases. However, authorities routinely detained and deported potential forced labor victims without screening for signs of exploitation, and prosecuted victims forced into prostitution for prostitution offenses. Russia’s 2016 Statistics: In 2016, the Global Slavery Index reported that there were more than one million human trafficking victims in Russia. While these raids took place with some regularity, the use of undocumented or forced labor remained widespread due to complacency and corruption. • Increase efforts to raise public awareness of both sex and labor trafficking, including among minors. In January 2018, local authorities worked with NGOs to free victims from a factory, obtain travel documents and raise funds to help repatriate Uzbek victims. The government published sentencing information for 2018 that included for article 127.1, three paroles, 11 prison terms, one compulsory labor, and one fine; and for article 127.2, five prison terms and one parole. Authorities conducted scheduled and unannounced audits of firms employing foreign laborers to check for violations of immigration and labor laws – with penalties in the form of revoking foreign worker permits. In recent years, criminal cases have involved Russian officials suspected of allegedly facilitating trafficking by enabling victims’ entry into Russia, providing protection to traffickers, and returning victims to their exploiters. An NGO assisted approximately 193 victims in 2018, but it estimated the number of victims to number in the thousands. Corruption and official complicity remained significant concerns, inhibiting law enforcement action during the year. However, observers also noted other authorities often did not recognize foreign victims when they were unlawfully present in Russia, which resulted in the penalization of foreign victims rather than their referral to care. At least, that’s how much Anton Pogorelov was sold for in 2015 when he became a slave in a brick factory in Dagestan. NGOs reported an increase in the number sex trafficking victims from Africa in 2017 and predicted the number of Africans subjected to trafficking in Russia could increase during soccer tournaments and as the Libyan route to Europe becomes more treacherous. There are reports of Russian citizens facing forced labor abroad. Despite the lack of significant efforts, the government took some steps to address trafficking, including by removing officials who may have been complicit in forced labor, facilitating the return of Russian children from Iraq and Syria, and identifying some victims, including foreign nationals. A government-funded homeless shelter accepted Russian and foreign trafficking victims, provided medical and psychiatric aid, and referred victims to international NGOs and other homeless shelters located in many of Russia's regions. Throughout 2017, the government maintained bilateral contracts with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) under which the DPRK operated labor camps in Russia and subjected thousands of North Korean workers to forced labor, though near the end of the reporting period, Russia announced its intention to discontinue future contracts to comply with UN Security Council Resolution 2397. There were limited examples of government cooperation with civil society. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Russian authorities cooperated in some international investigations involving Russian nationals subjected to trafficking abroad and extradited some alleged traffickers wanted in their home country. Instances of labor trafficking have been reported in construction, manufacturing, logging, saw mills, agriculture, sheep farms, brick factories, textile, grocery stores, maritime industries, and domestic service, as well as in forced begging, waste sorting, and street sweeping. However, the number of victims identified by the government remained negligible and authorities routinely deported potential forced labor victims without screening for signs of exploitation and prosecuted sex trafficking victims for prostitution offenses. An NGO assisted approximately 193 victims in 2018, but it estimated the number of victims to number in the thousands. Russian women and children are reportedly victims of sex trafficking in Russia and abroad, including in Northeast Asia, Europe, Central Asia, Africa, the United States, and the Middle East. An NGO reported some hospitals began to issue birth certificates to all children born in the country, regardless of the parents’ immigration status. The government did not report screening specifically for indicators of trafficking, but media reports indicated the children received counseling. Following these statistics in 2016, Russia The government continued to operate regional migration centers where migrants could obtain work permits directly from the government; however, the permits contained large upfront fees and sometimes required multiple time-consuming trips to the center to obtain. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article is based partially or entirely on public domain works of the U.S. government, and thus may require cleanup. Forced prostitution occurs in brothels, hotels, and saunas, among other locations. Trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation, often referred to a modem day form of slavery, is a multi-billion dollar global criminal activity. The cost of a human life in Russia is just 18,000 rubles (US$235). There were indications that some trafficking cases were reclassified as kidnapping or battery in order to secure a conviction; the government provided no public information on whether any of these cases involved force, fraud, or coercion. Women from Russia's North Caucasus region as well as women from Central Asia residing in Russia were recruited to join ISIS through online romantic relationships and subjected to exploitation once they arrived. A February 2016 agreement between Russia and DPRK enabled Russian authorities to deport North Koreans residing “illegally” in Russia, possibly even for those with refugee status; this may increase the risk of labor trafficking for North Koreans working under the state-to-state agreement. In approximately 54% of human trafficking cases, the recruiter is a stranger, and in 46% of the cases, the recruiters know the victim. The "Yarovaya" package of anti-terror laws made it a crime for individuals or organizations to provide material assistance to people considered to be in Russia illegally. The prosecutor said he was only able to prove human trafficking in one of the cases and said the other eight women had come from Russia to Sweden of their own will. An international organization identified more than 2,400 trafficking cases in Russia from 2015 to 2017. Corruption among some government officials and within some state agencies creates an environment enabling trafficking crimes. Swedish prosecutors have charged a group of 24 Russians and Swedes with human trafficking, pimping and buying sex from nine Russian women, the AFP news agency reports. As in previous years, the government did not draft a national strategy or assign roles and responsibilities to government agencies. The Government of Russia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore Russia remained on Tier 3. • Provide victims access to legal alternatives to deportation to countries where they face hardship or retribution. However, observers also noted other authorities often did not distinguish between foreign victims and individuals unlawfully present in Russia, which resulted in the penalization of foreign victims rather than their referral to care. • End all bilateral labor agreements with the DPRK that perpetuate forced labor and cease the issuance of work permits under these contracts. Moreover, DPRK authorities reportedly arrested, imprisoned, subjected to forced labor, tortured, and sometimes executed repatriated trafficking victims. The “Yarovaya” package of anti-terror laws made it a crime for individuals or organizations to provide material assistance to people considered to be in Russia illegally; authorities could prosecute NGOs who assist unlawfully present victims of trafficking. At-Risk Groups 32 1.3. Spain is for the most part a destination for victims, mainly from Eastern Europe (mainly Romania), Africa (mainly Nigeria), Asia (mainly China) and South America (mainly Paraguay), as well as for transit to other destinations, chiefly European countries such as France and the United Kingdom. Anton is one of 794,000 people living in conditions of modern slavery in the Russian Federation today. NGOs reported a significant number of cases go unreported due to the lack of a formal referral mechanism, victims' fears, and the lack of government assistance to victims. It was not clear that the government screened laborers for trafficking indicators. These reports contain human trafficking by country statistics, allowing me to rank top 12 countries. Out of all these cases, only 38 … Authorities did not screen other vulnerable populations, such as migrant workers or foreign women entering Russia on student visas despite evidence of their intention to work or other vulnerabilities to trafficking. The government maintained minimal law enforcement efforts. • Amend the trafficking law to align the definition of trafficking with international standards. An NGO reported that tens of thousands of trafficking-related cases were reported to authorities, but the government processed most under different articles, which suppressed statistics and masked the scale of the problem. This is not a UNHCR publication. While estimates vary, the Russian government reported the number of North Korean workers in Russia declined from 30,000 to approximately 11,500 in 2018. The government did not consistently provide comprehensive information on prosecution efforts, but the limited available data and media reports suggest prosecutions remained low compared with the scope of Russia's trafficking problem.
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